Development, Endangered Environmentalists, Environment, Human Rights, Indigenous Communities, Indigenous Peoples, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights, Law Enforcement, Murdered Activists, Private sector, Research, Violence Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Indigenous peoples are facing criminalization and violence the world over, tactics employed by private businesses and governments seeking to use indigenous lands for their own gain through economic development projects, according to a report submitted to the UN Human Rights Council on August 27.UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Victoria Tauli-Corpuz said she has seen firsthand a sharp rise in instances of physical violence and legal prosecution against indigenous peoples in countries like Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Kenya, Mexico, Peru, and the Philippines since her appointment as Special Rapporteur in 2014.The Special Rapporteur identifies lack of official recognition of indigenous peoples’ land rights as one of the root causes of violence, sometimes even leading to indigenous communities being treated as trespassers on their own traditional territories. After the Seko indigenous peoples of Indonesia rejected a plan to build a hydropower plant on their traditional lands in the province of South Sulawesi, the company behind the plant and the local government responded with intimidation and violence, according to the Alliance of Indigenous Peoples of the Archipelago (AMAN).Eventually, 14 Seko community members were arrested and served time, while 14 others are still on a “wanted list.” At one point, the police reportedly threatened to arrest all of the men in the Seko village if protests continued. Women and children have also experienced violence as a result of the community’s opposition to the hydropower project, AMAN said.The Seko are certainly not alone in being portrayed as criminals and targeted with violent reprisals after standing up for their rights and lands. Indigenous peoples are facing criminalization and violence the world over, tactics employed by private businesses and governments seeking to use indigenous lands for their own gain through economic development projects.Victoria Tauli-Corpuz, UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, submitted a report with that finding to the UN Human Rights Council on August 27. Tauli-Corpuz said she has seen firsthand a sharp rise in instances of physical violence and legal prosecution against indigenous peoples in countries like Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Kenya, Mexico, Peru, and the Philippines since her appointment as Special Rapporteur in 2014.“I’ve been alerted to hundreds of criminalization cases from nearly every corner of the world,” Tauli-Corpuz said in a statement. “The rapid expansion of development projects on indigenous lands without their consent is driving a global crisis. These attacks — whether physical or legal — are an attempt to silence Indigenous Peoples voicing their opposition to projects that threaten their livelihoods and cultures.”Tauli-Corpuz’s findings on violence against indigenous activists are consistent with those of a report released in July by the NGO Global Witness that found indigenous peoples make up a disproportionate number of those killed in retaliation for their activism — a number that has continually risen in recent years. In 2017, 25 percent of the murders of land and environment defenders recorded by Global Witness were indigenous activists, though indigenous peoples represent just 5 percent of the global population.A pattern of criminalizationAccording to the Special Rapporteur’s report, criminalization of indigenous peoples usually follows an established pattern. The report states: “While the killing of indigenous defenders represents the worst human rights violation, such attacks tend to occur in the context of violence and threats against them and their communities, including enforced disappearances, forced evictions, judicial harassment, arbitrary arrests and detention, limitations to the freedom of expression and freedom of assembly, stigmatization, surveillance, travel bans and sexual harassment.”Tauli-Corpuz found that before criminal charges are brought, defamation and smear campaigns are often directed at indigenous communities and leaders through channels such as social media, casting them as anti-development and accusing them of acting against the national interest. “Defamation campaigns are often developed by business actors, with the overt or covert support of corrupt government officials whose financial interests are affected by indigenous peoples’ defence of their lands,” Tauli-Corpuz writes.When criminal complaints are officially brought against indigenous activists and leaders, they are usually “broad and ill-defined” charges such as trespassing, aggravated usurpation, conspiracy, kidnapping, coercion, public disturbance, and incitement. “It is widely reported that states of emergency are declared to suspend judicial guarantees and justify the suppression of peaceful social protests,” per the report.Arrest warrants are repeatedly issued for indigenous peoples — or even whole communities — despite a lack of evidence, the report adds. Meanwhile, the prosecution of indigenous individuals frequently ignores procedural norms, leading to abuses like pre-trial detention of the accused lasting for several years and indigenous defendants having no access to legal counsel or even interpreters in order to adequately mount a defense.Lack of land rights a root cause of violenceThe Special Rapporteur identifies lack of official recognition of indigenous peoples’ land rights as one of the root causes of violence, sometimes even leading to indigenous communities being treated as trespassers on their own traditional territories.The World Resources Institute reported earlier this year that addressing the lack of land title for indigenous communities is often impeded by the fact that the process to formalize their land rights is so costly and complex that it can take as long as 30 years — yet companies can secure long-term rights to land in as little as 30 days.The NGO Rights and Resources International (RRI) estimates that indigenous peoples have legally recognized rights to just 10 percent of the world’s land, though they control as much as 65 percent through customary, community-based tenure systems.Anne-Sophie Gindroz, RRI’s facilitator for South East Asia, said that the law isn’t only failing indigenous communities when it comes to awarding them title to their traditional lands. Perpetrators of violence are rarely brought to justice, she said, as there is widespread impunity for those who commit violence against indigenous peoples.“At the same time, justice systems can be used against indigenous human rights defenders,” Gindroz added. “In Indonesia, for example, people have been arrested for remaining on their land after it was granted to palm oil companies by the government.”As the Special Rapporteur’s report shows, violence and criminalization are not reserved solely for the indigenous activists standing up to protect their people’s lands. Lawyers and civil society advocates who work with indigenous peoples are often targets, as well. Gindroz herself was expelled from the Lao People’s Democratic Republic for her advocacy work.It’s not just economic development that is being used as an excuse to criminalize indigenous protest, either. While the majority of the cases documented by the Special Rapporteur involved opposition to business interests, in some instances conservation efforts were used to justify the criminalization of indigenous communities living traditional lifestyles, leading to arrests, forced evictions, and other violations of human rights.For instance, “Conservation has been given as an excuse for escalating violence against the Sengwer Indigenous Peoples living within their ancestral lands in the Embobut forest in Kenya,” according to Yator Kiptum, executive coordinator of the Sengwer Indigenous Peoples Programme. “Some have even been killed. The Kenyan Forest Service has repeatedly forcefully evicted and burned Sengwer homes and arrested community members — in spite of the fact that the court issued an injunction to prevent such evictions.”Andrew Anderson, executive director of the Front Line Defenders NGO, said in a statement that “What is happening now across the world is nothing less than a systematic attack on peasant communities and Indigenous Peoples.” Front Line Defenders documented 312 murders of human rights advocates last year, 67 percent of which were in response to people defending their lands, the environment, or indigenous rights from private sector mega-projects and extractive industries.“In their insatiable greed for wood and oil and gold, corrupt elites, who have no ambition beyond their own enrichment, risk not only destroying the lives and culture of Indigenous Peoples, but also destroying the environment on which our collective future survival depends,” Anderson said.Indigenous activists with the Guardians of the Forest coalition take part in the Rise For Climate day of action in San Francsco, California on September 8, 2018. Photo Credit: Joel Redman/If Not Us Then Who.Follow Mike Gaworecki on Twitter: @mikeg2001FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page. Article published by Mike Gaworecki
Teachers are in disagreement with Education Minister, Dr Rupert Roopnaraine’s opposition to students writing in excess of eight subjects at the Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate (CSEC) examinations. This was revealed when a report was submitted by several teachers of The Bishops’ High School to the Commission of Inquiry (CoI) into the education sector.“The consensus shared among teachers is that any government diktat imposing an upper limit on the number of subjects secondary students are allowed to sit is a bridge too far. While we wholeheartedly endorse the sentiments of the Minister of Education regarding the questionable value of writing numerous subjects, we can think of at least six reasons why guidance (nudge), as opposed to decree, is the more sensible strategy,” the report stated.Education Minister,Dr Rupert RoopnaraineThe report entitled, “Perspectives on Education”, which was compiled with views and suggestions from 18 teachers at the School, stated that the decision as to the number of subjects being written at the examination was a personal one which was best left to parents and their children as they were “the perfect judge of their peculiar circumstances”.“Not all students possess the same level of academic acumen. This necessarily means that while some students might find 20 subjects a daunting pursuit, others may not. The Education Ministry does not finance the sitting of these exams, except where they are subsidised. Given the absence of direct financing, the lack of financial consideration precludes a judgment on how a private citizen should spend his or her money, even when the good is publicly provided,” the teachers further opined in the submission.The report went on to explain that often times, students pursue a large number of subjects at the CSEC examinations so as to aid in securing scholarships and other accolades.In early April, the Education Minister had stated that he was against students writing more than eight subjects as students who write more than the required subjects lose the chance to be engaged in extra-curricular activities in most cases. He had stated that he was a strong believer that students should have the opportunity to grow throughout their school days, being able to get involved in activities that did not all focus on academics.These activities that the Minister was referring to were sports and music which have become somewhat dormant in the school system. Roopnaraine had declared that he approved of students writing no more than eight subjects at one sitting, since this would be more productive and efficient. These subjects would include the elemental subjects: Mathematics, English and Science, which are the most essential when it comes to the CSEC.However, in the report, the teachers opined that placing an upper limit on how many subjects a student could pursue would not have the desired effect that the Minister hoped for, and unwanted situations may arise. “Those students who are prohibited from writing more than, say, eight subjects, can realistically sit the remainder as private candidates.” Disruptions in the working of schools – issues may include timetable allocations problems; and some teachers ending up without sufficient teaching periods” are some of the possible effects the report listed.The teachers, therefore, provided a number of alternatives to capping the number of subjects students were allowed to write, one being the provision of guidance and counselling to both parents and students before making the decision.“An alternative approach the Ministry may consider is the use of strategies that “nudge” parents and pupils in the desired direction. Included among these are: provide subventions only up to the prescribed number of subjects; promote the benefits of extra-curricular activities to the student’s development; and mandate and finance a programme of activities that adds to students’ non-academic growth as a programme of this nature could conceivably limit the time available for instruction, making it impossible to teach beyond a certain number of subjects,” the report suggested.
FRIDAY Big Bunny’s Spring Fling through Sunday, 10 a.m.-4 p.m., Los Angeles Zoo, Griffith Park, 5333 Zoo Dr., Los Angeles. Free with zoo admission. Call (323) 644-4211. Mail Datebook entries to Daily News City Desk, P.O. Box 4200, Woodland Hills, CA 91365; fax (818) 713-0058; e-mail email@example.com. AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREOregon Ducks football players get stuck on Disney ride during Rose Bowl event160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!
Joe Ledley in action for Wales 1 Derby County have signed Wales international midfielder Joe Ledley on a free transfer.The 30-year-old had been without a club since his release by Crystal Palace at the end of last season and has now joined the Rams on a short-term deal until January.Ledley, who has made 507 career appearances and scored 64 goals, will be available for Derby’s Sky Bet Championship clash with Birmingham on Saturday.Gary Rowett’s County side currently sit 15th in the table and were thumped 4-1 at Bristol City in their last game.
richard macmanus The NY Times reports that Microsoft will release a Unified Installer program for Windows Live this week, enabling PC users to download a set of the services – understood to be Windows Live Writer, Windows Live Photo Gallery, Windows Live Mail, Windows Live Messenger 8.5 and Windows Live OneCare Family Safety. John Markoff of the Times says that this is an effort to connect the Windows OS with software services delivered via the Net – and he draws parallels with Microsoft tieing Internet Explorer to Windows in the mid-90s (for which Microsoft was eventually convicted of anti-trust violations). The implication is that Microsoft will have an unfair advantage, because the Windows Live Internet services will be tied in some way to Windows – or at least work better on Windows.Markoff also notes that the Windows Live installer is a direct competitive strike to Google and Salesforce.com, both of whom offer software services over the Internet.What is the Unified Installer?Read/WriteWeb first covered the Unified Installer at the end of June, when we spoke to Brian Hall, General Manager for Windows Live. He told us that the types of products represented under the umbrella Windows Liveare: CommunicationSharingAnywhere AccessSafetyThe first two (Communication,Sharing) are very much typical web 2.0 consumer apps – email, social networking, photosharing, etc. These are the same apps that Google, Yahoo and others have. The other two(Anywhere Access, Safety) are more the types of apps we traditionally expect fromMicrosoft – but under Windows Live they are delivered as ‘software as a service’, rather than traditional shrink-wrap products.According to Brian Hall, Windows Live circa 2007 onwards will be “more cohesive” andmuch more of a proper suite – addressing the branding problems and seemingly ad-hoc rollout of the first generation of Windows Live from November 2005 (when Bill Gates announced the Windows Live strategy) to 2007. The Unified Installer aims to make available all the pieces of the Live Suite as a single upgradeable download – instead of separate programsand services as they are now. Related Posts Tags:#news#web 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic…
Tags:#mobile#Product Reviews#social networks#web The Dos and Don’ts of Brand Awareness Videos At the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, MySpace just made some major announcements. They’ve announced plans to develop mobile applications for the Nokia S60 as well as the much-anticipated Palm Pre. However, for most of us, the bigger news is the relaunch of the MySpace Mobile web site which will occur this week. Yet even with the updated branding and new user interface elements introduced by the revamped site, we wonder: will it be enough to win users back from Facebook?Over the past day or so, the tech blogosphere has been engrossed in a major brouhaha over the update to the Facebook Terms of Service (TOS) which implies that the social networking site now owns all your content. It seems there could be no better time for MySpace to announce some good news about their company as they could easily capitalize on the calls for Facebook boycotts and the current disgruntled mental state of Facebook’s users.What’s NewBut what MySpace has announced may not be anything dramatic enough to encourage those upset at Facebook to give MySpace another shot. Instead, in addition the Nokia and Pre applications that are now underway, the company said they will launch a new MySpace Mobile web site this week. The site (m.myspace.com / wap.myspace.com) is said to better enhance the look and feel of MySpace on the mobile phone to make it more closely resemble the online web site. User interface elements have been optimized for devices with screen sizes 176 pixels wide (and larger) and it includes the ability to upload photos. The company also says the site is more scalable, which is good considering they’re reporting 20 million visitors hitting up the mobile site each month – a number that has been growing rapidly. Over the past six months, the company has noted over a 50% increase in mobile usage for the U.S., an 80% increase in mobile usage in Europe, and a 60% increase in the Asian market. A Look Look…YawnWhile those numbers on their own are impressive, MySpace is now no longer the dominate social network in the world. And while they still reign as the leader in the U.S., we’re seeing Facebook steal marketshare on that battleground as well. As of last month, Facebook gained almost 100 million more worldwide users than MySpace and is now nearly two times as large.For MySpace to reclaim their dominance, they would have needed a much bigger announcement right now than simply some new apps and a new look for their mobile web site. They would have needed something that broke new ground – like a location-aware mobile site that found your nearby friends or a site that integrated MySpace Music for on-the-fly mobile streaming. Something…you know, big. Instead, what we got was this (see below). Before:After:That’s nice, we suppose, but we were hoping for something a bit more. What do you think? Related Posts Guide to Performing Bulk Email Verification sarah perez Facebook is Becoming Less Personal and More Pro… A Comprehensive Guide to a Content Audit
The LPM “Magpie” Awards offer a means to celebrate industry accomplishments on an ongoing basis, recognizing the loss prevention professionals, teams, solution providers, law enforcement partners, and others that demonstrate a stellar contribution to the profession.The ability to influence change is a product of drive, creativity, and determination, but it also requires a unique ability to create a shared vision that others will understand, respect, support, and pursue. Each of the following recipients reflects that standard of excellence, representing the quality and spirit of leadership that makes a difference in our lives, our people, and our programs. Please join us in celebrating the accomplishments of our latest honorees.Excellence in Partnerships Steve Longo, Vice President of Strategic Initiatives, CAP Index- Sponsor – “Around the age of ten, I started selling software demo kits alongside my dad,” said Longo. “He was a brilliant man, passionately building relationships with innovators in the early days of software development, including (name drop) Bill Gates. Later while still in school, I started working at CAP Index doing a lot of the sales ‘grunt work’ often given to the entry-level guy. Over the past twenty-five years, I’ve continued to work at CAP in various capacities, leading the company’s business development, marketing, event management, industry partnerships, and other efforts.”Longo believes that true partners have a passion for getting involved. “It’s important to come prepared with ideas to share, respectfully participate in the conversation, and actively listen,” he said. “Strong partnerships come from sharing ideas and working together. But the most important trait is balance between the absolute serious nature of what we do in this industry—protecting people, businesses, livelihoods—and levity. Everyone needs a laugh, and it’s a great way to build relationships. When reviewing financials, creating policies, or teaming up with another group or company, a little levity goes a long way in developing strong relationships.”Longo also feels it’s important to pay attention, share ideas, and add value whenever you can. “Get involved, listen more than you talk, and always have a perspective to contribute,” he said. “Be an expert at what you do and interested in learning what others do. Know your business and the value you bring, and you’ll be better able to focus on understanding others. You want to help others succeed. Make friends and have fun, but find a way to bring value. If you can make your customer the hero, you will have a customer for life.”Excellence in Partnerships Steve May, CFI, Retired CEO and President, LP Innovations (DTT) “I started my loss prevention career working for my father’s small family loss prevention security business,” said May. “This was a great learning experience, providing an opportunity to work in a variety of retail, wholesale, distribution, and manufacturing environments. I learned very quickly that as a service provider, customers could be very demanding-but also very fair.”In 1988, May moved to J. Baker, which he considers the most important move in terms of personal and professional growth. Spending ten years with the company, he climbed the career ladder to eventually become first senior vice president. In 1998, he became a president and CEO at LP Innovations (LPI). After running LPI for over twenty years, he offers some advice for up-and-coming solution providers.“Never assume,” he said. “Solution providers must actively engage with customers on the value of our service, whether or not we’re meeting expectations, and what we can do to help exceed expectations. Always ask how you’re doing, provide customers different ways to comment on their experiences, and act quickly on their recommendations. Most customers genuinely appreciate efforts to raise the bar. You have to believe that the services provided will help them become a better, more profitable business. Rather than simply trying to sell a product, focus on being a genuine partner. Execute, act on their behalf, and become a vital part of their success.“Being a vendor is not a dirty word. You need to believe in your bones that what you’re providing is critical to your customer’s success. It’s your obligation to become a vital part of your customer’s team. You need to be engaged with your customers, recognized as a trusted advisor, a source of information, a problem solver, a professional colleague, and most importantly, a friend.”Nominate Your Peers We want this to be your program. Those of you working as LP practitioners witness these exceptional performances on a regular and ongoing basis, and we strongly encourage you to provide us with nominees for each of the award categories. We encourage creative nominations and want the program to cast a positive light on the many tremendous contributions of the loss prevention community. Nominations can be submitted via email to excellence [at] LPportal.com. Stay UpdatedGet critical information for loss prevention professionals, security and retail management delivered right to your inbox. Sign up now
The Massachusetts legislature sent Gov. Charlie Baker legislation that would create a new payroll income tax on employers for a state family and medical leave program.What Employers Would Pay the Payroll Tax?The payroll tax would apply to most Massachusetts employers, including state and municipal government agencies. The tax would also apply to:– self-employed individuals who elect to receive benefits; and– businesses that employ independent contractors and must report payments for services on federal Form 1099-MISC.The tax would not apply to employers with less than 25 employees in Massachusetts. The threshold would apply to businesses with a workforce that includes more than 50% of individuals who are independent contractors.How Much Would Employers Pay?Employers would pay the tax at the initial rate of .63%.The treasurer and receiver for the new Family and Employment Security Trust Fund would set employer contribution rates each year. Employers could not deduct more than 40% of the contributions from an employee’s wages for medical leave. However, employers could deduct to up to 100% of the contributions from an employee’s wages for family leave.When Would the Payroll Tax Take Effect?The payroll tax would take effect beginning July 1, 2019. The Massachusetts Department of Family and Medical Leave would begin to pay benefits on January 1, 2021.H.B. 4640, as passed by the Massachusetts House of Representatives and Senate on June 20, 2018Login to read more tax news on CCH® AnswerConnect or CCH® Intelliconnect®.Not a subscriber? Sign up for a free trial or contact us for a representative.
(AP) A 34-year-old black man whose family was homeless at times during his childhood in Kansas City, Missouri, will become the city’s 55th mayor.Unofficial results showed that Kansas City voters on Tuesday chose Quinton Lucas over fellow City Council member Jolie Justus in a mayoral runoff. He will assume office in August, replacing Sly James, another black mayor who served two four-year terms.Despite poverty and homelessness, Lucas earned academic scholarships to Washington University in St. Louis and Cornell Law School. He is a lawyer and member of the University of Kansas law faculty who was elected to the City Council in 2015.Lucas pledged during the campaign to bring an outsider mentality to the mayor’s office. He said he would work to reduce crime, increase affordable housing and to steer development projects to underserved areas.
Vaccines save millions of lives every year by teaching our immune systems how to combat certain viruses or bacteria. But a new study suggests that, paradoxically, they could sometimes teach pathogens to become more dangerous as well.The study is controversial. It was done in chickens, and some scientists say it has little relevance for human vaccination; they worry it will reinforce doubts about the merits or safety of vaccines. It shouldn’t, says lead author Andrew Read, a biologist at Pennsylvania State University, University Park: The study provides no support whatsoever for the antivaccine movement. But it does suggest that some vaccines may have to be monitored more closely, he argues, or supported with extra measures to prevent unintended consequences.Evolutionary science suggests that many pathogens aren’t deadly, or not even very virulent, because if they kill their host too quickly they can’t spread to other victims. Now enter vaccination. Some vaccines don’t prevent infection, but they do reduce how sick patients become. As Read first argued in a Nature paper 14 years ago, by keeping their hosts alive, such “imperfect” or “leaky” vaccines could give deadlier pathogens an edge, allowing them to spread when they would normally burn out quickly.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Now, Read has published a paper showing that this seems to have happened with Marek’s disease, a viral infection in chickens. Marek’s disease spreads when infected birds shed the virus from their feather follicles, which is then inhaled with dust by other chickens. Poultry farmers routinely vaccinate against the disease, which keeps their flocks healthy but does not stop chickens from becoming infected and spreading the virus. Over the past few decades, Marek’s disease has become much more virulent—which some researchers believe is the result of vaccination.Read and researchers at the Pirbright Institute in Compton, U.K., infected chickens with Marek’s disease virus of different strains known to span the spectrum from low to high virulence. When the birds weren’t vaccinated, infection with highly virulent strains killed them so fast that they shed very little virus—orders of magnitude less than when they were infected with less virulent strains. But in vaccinated birds, the opposite was true: Those infected with the most virulent strains shed more virus than birds infected with the least virulent strain.In one experiment, unvaccinated birds infected with the most virulent strains were housed together with healthy birds. Again, the infected chickens were dead in no time, leaving them no chance to spread the disease to their healthy cagemates. But when vaccinated birds were infected with the highly virulent strain, they lived longer and all the healthy birds housed with them became infected and died. Thus, “vaccination enabled the onward transmission of viruses otherwise too lethal to transmit, putting unvaccinated individuals at great risk of severe disease and death,” the authors write online today in PLOS Biology.The study is convincing, says Michael Lässig, a physicist at the University of Cologne in Germany who studies the evolution of influenza. “But it’s a very special set of circumstances,” he cautions. “I would be careful about drawing general conclusions.”Adrian Hill, a vaccine researcher at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom, says the experiments support the idea that vaccines helped make Marek’s disease deadlier, but don’t prove it. Many other things have changed in the poultry industry in the last decades; flocks have become much bigger, for instance, which could also favor more virulent strains. But Read says those “hot strains” would die out very quickly if the vaccines were taken away.Hill doesn’t doubt that some vaccines could lead to enhanced virulence; the real question is how likely this is to happen. His answer: It’s highly unlikely, and not something we should be worried about. “They have taken 15 years to do an experiment on the only example of this happening.”Read counters that there may well be other examples. Feline calicivirus, which causes a respiratory infection in cats, is a strong candidate, he says; “there have been outbreaks of “superhot” strains in vaccinated populations.” Read is particularly worried about avian influenza. In Europe and the United States, entire poultry flocks are usually culled to stop an outbreak; Asian farmers often use bird flu vaccines. “You could have the emergence of superhot strains,” as a result, he says. Ab Osterhaus, a virologist at Erasmus MC in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, says this is “very unlikely, but a scenario that cannot be excluded.”But what about human diseases? Most human vaccines in use today aren’t “leaky”; they are very good at stopping disease transmission. But as researchers turn to diseases that are more difficult to protect against, such as malaria or HIV, they are setting their sights lower, aiming for vaccines that prevent severe disease but not infection. “We are entering the era of leaky vaccines in humans,” Read says. Candidate vaccines against Ebola or malaria—one of which recently received an important stamp of approval in Europe—should definitely be used if they are safe and effective, he says, but they could lead to more virulent pathogens. “We need to have a responsible discussion about this.”But to Hill, these comments themselves are irresponsible. Read “has no more evidence this will happen with an Ebola vaccine than that it’ll happen with any other vaccine in humans,” he says. “He should stop scaremongering.” The whole distinction between leaky and nonleaky vaccines is flawed, Hill argues: “Every vaccine is leaky, in that some people don’t get protected by it, some people are partially protected, some people have prevention of disease, and others prevention of infection.” Millions of people around the world receive a shots every month, and there is no evidence that that has ever led to any disease becoming deadlier, Hill says.What’s more, natural immunity should have the same effect, he adds: After we recover from a disease, we usually end up with a limited, “leaky” protection against a pathogen that is not very different from what vaccines achieve, Hill says. “For malaria, whatever today’s vaccine does is a drop in the ocean of all the immunity that is happening in Africa from all the infections in all the people.”Hill worries that Read’s work will play into the hands of antivaxxers. But Read says that even if a human vaccine is ever shown to cause dangerous evolution of the pathogen, that wouldn’t be a reason not to vaccinate. The most important thing would be to support vaccination with other measures that curb transmission, such as bed nets for malaria.Ironically, increased virulence would make it even more important to vaccinate everyone, he says, because universal vaccination would prevent the more dangerous strains from harming anyone. This is actually what has happened in Marek’s disease, Read says. “I believe because of these vaccines the industry has created superhot strains, but the vaccine still works fantastically well, because it can be delivered to every single vulnerable bird.”*Correction, 28 July, 4:07 p.m.: A quote by Adrian Hill in this story has been corrected.